Tuesday, March 5, 2013
[ This is a guest post from Bonnie Lewis, a researcher at the University of Kentucky’s Center for Visualization and Virtual Environments. Bonnie has been working with the digital imagery of the biblical manuscripts from Lichfield Cathedral, captured in 2010 by a team led by Brent Seales, who was the director of the U.K. Viz Center. I was fortunate enough to get to be present and help with this digitization (the Center for Hellenic Studies donated some equipment from our work on the Homer Multitext). In this post, Bonnie describes the important work being done in Kentucky toward bringing these manuscripts to a scholarly community in useful ways. At Furman, we have been developing editing workflows that we hope will allow us to contribute to Bonnie’s work of capturing the full semantic complexity of the St. Chad Gospels, Lichfield’s Wycliffe New Testament, and other biblical manuscripts. The promise of a fully-integrated publication of these manuscripts is most clear from Bonnie’s description of her treatment of this challenge, a treatment that is both innovative and rigorous. — C. Blackwell ]
The Vis U program at the University of Kentucky has been working on several projects this summer. The one I am involved with is called InfoForest. This project is a system that works through Apps that can display data about ancient manuscripts (images, XML, and media) in a way that enhances the meaning of the documents and makes them available to a wider audience. What is unique about this system is that it has been designed to function on several platforms and to grow as our “Forest” of knowledge grows. It was built with the intention that it will be easily replicable.
Our project really began in 2010 when a research group from the Vis Center traveled to Lichfield Cathedral in England to image the Gospel book. They took Multispectral, 3D, and RGB images of each page. This was a part of a larger project called FoLIO. These images are where we primarily pulled the data for the Chad Gospels to put into the App.
My role in the project, as a History Major and Classics minor, was to assemble the data in a way that was organized and enhanced its meaning. I also saw my unofficial role in the project as trying to figure out what will be meaningful to a wide audience of users.
What that came down to in the project was that I wrote XML that corresponded to the images of the manuscript. People at Furman University had already done this for Matthew, so I finished out the rest of the manuscript, trying my best to mimic the XML structure they used for the first book. In the XML, I marked the line breaks, page breaks, verses and variations in words in the manuscript. My intent in this process was to create data about the manuscript that was informative organizationally (the Chad Gospels do not mark verses in the text) and easily searchable as many words are misspelled in the Latin and need to be able to be searched in their correct form as well as their incorrect. This process took the better part of 5 months.
I also organized the images of the Chad Gospels in a way that would make it easy for the server to respond to requests from the devices for a certain page of the manuscript. This meant that I, with the help of John Broadbent (another student working on the server side of the project), had to correctly size and name around 20,000 images. This was done through the use of scripts created by John that could rename and modify folders en mass. These scripts can be used on other data sets to resize and rename other images.
The result of this process was that we came up with a method to organize these sets of data in a way that was standardized and replicable for other data sets. There are still aspects of the project that will not be able to be as easily automatable as other parts were. For example, the transcription and mark up of the documents needs to be done, for the most part, by hand and is a time intensive process. However, in the XML, we were able to follow TEI standards in the mark up and were also able to establish a framework for writing the XML that can be replicated for other data sets.
Throughout the project, our goal was to put all of this information up on a server at the Vis Center. However, about two weeks before our deadline, the University shut down our server. Thankfully, with the help of Dr. Blackwell, we were allowed to put our information on the Furman Server. This whole project has been a collaboration of many minds and resources, but I love how the final weeks highlighted how dependent the project was on collaboration. The devices we are using to show the apps in Kentucky are pulling information from a server in Houston that was modified by Dr. Blackwell in South Carolina. There is still much work to be done, as we were only able to build a proto type this summer, but it is exciting to see it come together. One of the other students working on the project described what we are doing as giving old manuscripts, new life. I think that summarizes what we did and are doing perfectly. It is exciting to see new life breathed into these manuscripts and watch the information the hold begin to come alive to new audiences.
University of Kentucky
Monday, July 16, 2012
The British Library Papyrus of the Constitution of the AtheniansSean Bonawitz, Neel Smith, and Christopher Blackwell are working during the summer of 2012 on the first steps of a comprehensive publication of only surviving witness to the Aristotelian Constitution of the Athenians. The papyrus is B.M. Pap. 131, that is, British Museum Papyrus number 131. Christopher Blackwell and Amy Hackney Blackwell, working with Chris Lee of the British Library, photographed this papyrus in November of 2011. The work was funded by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. EAGER–1041949. The images of the papyrus are undergoing automated analysis using new algorithms developed by Dr. Constantin Papaodysseus of the National Technical Institute of Athens. This summer’s work is being supported by the Furman Advantage Program.
The papyrus exists in five fragments. The five fragments show four different manuscript hands. The hands differ in appearance and in their use of abbreviations. According to John Edward Sandy’s 1893 commentary, pp. xxxvi–xxxix,, the first hand “extends over Columns 1–12” the second columns 13 to 20, the third hand runs from 20 to 24 and columns 31–37, while the fourth scribe includes columns from 25 to 30. Hands one and four are most similar to each other, but certainly not identical; Sandy’s came to this conclusion by counting the occurrence of abbreviations. While the first and fourth scribes used a significant amount of short-hand (“tachygraphy”) and abbreviations, the second hand hardly uses any, and in the columns written by the third hand they are scarce. Perhaps the most important thing about the change of hands are the editorial notes that occur throughout the piece. Who was this editor, and why did he make these notes?
Images of the papyrus are here.
Tuesday, November 15, 2011
The papyrus is P. Lond. 131, now at the British Library and formerly in the collection of the British Museum; it was purchased for the Museum in 1888, and F.G. Kenyon identified it as the Ath.Pol. in 1890. He announced his discovery in The Times of London on January 19 of 1891—the announcement ran on page 9. Kenyon published a first edition of the text in 1891.
With funding from the National Science Foundation (Grant No. EAGER-1041949), we were able to collaborate with the British Library to take new digital photographs of the five papyrus fragments, which range in length from three feet to five feet long. These photographs will be used as test-data for new methods of automated analysis of Greek scribal hands, using techniques developed at the National Technical University of Athens by Dr. Constantin Papapodysseus and his research team. In addition, they will provide a unique opportunity for Furman undergraduates to create a new digital edition of this priceless text.
The photography took place on November 14, 2011 at the British Library. The images will go into the BL’s digital collection of Greek Manuscript data, but Furman University will enjoy an open-content license to use them freely and to share the fruits of our use with other students and scholars. We are deeply grateful to the entire staff of the British Library, and particularly to the experts in Preservation, Photography, and Curation who worked hard on this project.
Today, November 15, 2011, we are photographing the Bankes Homer, a 9-foot long papyrus fragment of Book 24 of the Iliad. This will become part of the Homer Multitext, Casey Dué and Mary Ebbott, edd.
Further updates on this work will appear here!
Wednesday, October 5, 2011
The Department of Classics at Furman is deeply honored and grateful to be the caretakers of the painting “Hercules Vanquishing the Hydra”, by Yvonne Arrowood of Greenville, South Carolina. This large oil painting is after a work by Guido Reni (1575–1642), which hangs now in the Louvre. On this painting, Hercules wears his distinctive lion-skin and is brandishing his club at the many-headed serpent. Furman is fortunate to have this striking work in our collection of fine art, and we are delighted that it now lives in our suite!
Wednesday, September 28, 2011
More insight on scholarly openness from Neel Smith at Holy Cross:
Vitruvian design for scholarship in the humanities: Access to scholarly work
At Furman, our undergraduates are pursuing important research. The vast majority of them will go on to important positions and rewarding careers outside of the academy. They value their research now because they see that it will increase the amount of useful knowledge in the world. Anything other than strict adherence to the principles of open access would destroy that value. That would be a grave disservice to the dedication and energy of the young scholars whose talents we are privileged to borrow for a few years.
Tuesday, September 20, 2011
Correct thinking from Neel Smith at the College of the Holy Cross:
Vitruvian design for scholarship in the humanities: Druids in Oxford?